Home' Policy Magazine : Policy Vol 33 - No 1 Contents 14 POLICY • Vol. 33 No. 1 • Autumn 2017
GIVE AND IT WILL BE GIVEN TO YOU: RECIPROCITY AND WELFARE
a profound positive change in the public’s attitude
toward social welfare.
Whatever method is chosen (and combinations
are possible), revising our welfare arrangements to
incorporate reciprocity and reward contribution
would provide protection to all citizens, increase
social cohesion, and improve public attitudes
toward welfare at a time when increasing numbers
of people will require assistance.
1 Bob James, Secret Handshakes and Health Care in Australia:
Part 2: A Personal Letter from ‘Gran Susannah’ to her
Grandchildren (1998), http://www.takver.com/history/
2 David Green and Lawrence Cromwell, Mutual Aid or
Welfare State: Australia’s Friendly Societies (Sydney: Allen
& Unwin, 1984).
3 Bob James, Secret Handshakes and Health Care in Australia:
Part 1 (1998), http://www.takver.com/history/guoof1.htm
4 Edmund Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1909; original
1790), para 75.
5 Some lodges still exist as fraternities and charities.
6 Lawrence C. Becker, Reciprocity (New York: Taylor and
Francis, 2014; original 1986).
7 Jochen Clasen, ‘Social Insurance and the Contributory
Principle: A Paradox in Contemporary British Policy’, Social
Policy and Administration 35:6 (2001), 641-657.
8 David T. Beito, From Mutual Aid to the Welfare State:
Fraternal Societies and Social Services, 1890-1967 (Chapel
Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000),
9 Becker, Reciprocity, 74.
10 Becker, Reciprocity; see also John Rawls, A Theory of Justice
(Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University,
1971) and Graeme Cooke, Contributory Welfare: Could the
Concept of Contributions-based Welfare Help Re-Galvanise
Support for the System? (2012), https://www.lwbooks.co.uk/
11 Ernest Frelling, ‘Why the Church Opposes the Oddfellows’,
The Sacred Heart Review 53:6 (1915).
12 James, Secret Handshakes and Health Care in Australia.
13 Mike Seccombe, ‘Inside the $100 Billion Charities Bubble’,
The Saturday Paper (23 April 2016).
14 William Keith Hancock, Australia (London: Ernest Benn,
15 William Henry Beveridge, Social Insurance and Allied
Services (London: HMSO, 1942), para 21.
16 The Collins Institute, The Contributory Principle: Linking
Benefits to Contribution, Welfare Reform Series Paper 3
(Dublin: The Collins Institute, 2016).
17 Kristian Niemietz, ‘Contribution versus Redistribution:
Contributory Welfare Won’t Happen’ (London: Institute
of Economic Affairs, 2013).
18 This case is based on one suggested by Niemietz above.
19 OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and
Social Affairs, Social Expenditure Update (Paris: OECD,
20 As above.
21 As above.
22 As above.
23 OECD Centre for Opportunity and Equality, Income
Inequality: The Gap Between Rich and Poor (Paris: OECD,
24 Alfred M. Dockery, Rachel Ong and Gavin A. Wood,
Welfare Traps in Australia: Do They Bite?, CLMR Discussion
Paper Series 08/02 (Perth: The Centre for Labour Market
Research, 2008) and Gøsta Esping-Andersen, The Three
Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
in association with Blackwell Publishing, 1990).
25 Cooke, Contributory Welfare (see note 10).
26 Jessica Irvine, ‘Half of Families Pay No Net Tax if Welfare
Benefits Deducted, New Figures Reveal’, news.com.au (9
27 Frank Chung, ‘Do NEETs Need to be Put to Work?’,
news.com.au (15 September 2016); Olivia Lambert,
‘Recruitment Agency Worker Claims Some on the Dole
Don’t Want to Get a Job’, news.com.au (13 December
2016); Matthew Knott, ‘Centrelink Debt Recovery Drive
has Caused Summer from Hell, Bill Shorten Says’, The
Sydney Morning Herald (9 January 2017).
28 Sid Maher, ‘ Welfare Bill for Refugees to Top $100m’, The
Australian (1 February 2016).
29 Jason Murphy, ‘The Big Myth about Dole Bludgers’, news.
com.au (24 September 2016); see also Jane Falkingham and
John Hills (eds), The Dynamic of Welfare: The Welfare State
and the Life Cycle (New York: Prentice Hall, 1995).
30 Productivity Commission, Economic Impacts of Migration
and Population Growth (Canberra: Productivity
31 Kate Bell and Declan Gaffney, Making a Contribution:
Social Security for the Future, Touchstone Pamphlet #12
(London: Trade Union Congress, 2012).
32 Andrew Grice, ‘Voters “Brainwashed by Tory Welfare
Myths”, Shows New Poll’, The Independent (4 January
33 Bell and Gaffney, Making a Contribution; see also Ryan
Shorthouse and David Kirkby, Give & Take: How
Conservatives Think About Welfare (London: Bright Blue,
34 Edward Miliband, Responsibility speech (2011), http://
35 Tim Horton and Louise Bamfield, Understanding
Attitudes to Tackling Economic Inequality, Joseph Rowntree
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